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Acute mountain sickness:

Acute mountain sickness is the body’s natural reaction to the low levels of oxygen found in a high altitude environment. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness include loss of appetite, vomiting, headaches, confusion and extreme tiredness. This condition can affect anyone regardless of their physical fitness. The risks of developing acute mountain sickness can be greatly decreased by making sure climbers acclimatise properly while in high mountain areas.

Agriculture:

Farming (including the growing of crops and the rearing of animals).

Albedo:

Albedo is the ratio of solar radiation falling on the surface of the earth compared to the amount reflected from it.

Algae:

Plants that grow in water.

Altitude:

Altitude is the vertical height of a feature, measured as a distance from sea level.

Antarctic Ocean :

Antarctic Ocean refers to the southern waters surrounding Antarctica.

Antarctica :

The continental land area of approximately 14 million sq km surrounding the South Pole. The overlying ice cap is so thick in some places that it is believed its base may be below sea level; and it is possible that the land itself may be in two parts (East and West Antarctica).

Arctic:

Arctic can be applied to the north Polar Regions. The term also means the region lying within the Arctic Circle, or to the landscape, climate conditions, animal and plant life found roughly within that area; and is often used loosely just to mean very cold.

Arête:

An arête is a knife-edged feature caused by enlarged cwms on either side of the landform eroding back into the rock. This leaves a ridge with steep drops on either side. The jagged rocks on the arête are the result of frost shattering.

Arid:

Very dry

Atmosphere:

The air or mixture of gases .

Atmospheric pressure:

Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted by the weight of the atmosphere on the earth. The atmospheric pressure determines how much air is ‘pushed’ into your lungs with each breath.

Atmospheric saturation:

Atmospheric saturation is when the atmosphere cannot hold any more water. When saturated air cools, the water vapour it holds condenses to mist, cloud or rain.

Base camp:

A base camp is normally the most permanent camp of a mountain expedition party. It is usually the lowest and most sheltered of the camps on a mountain.

Bergschrund:

A bergschrund is a special type of crevasse. They are found in cwms where a glacier moves away from the back wall of its cwm or hollow. The tension this causes forms great splits in the ice. Bergschrunds often open in summer and close in winter.

Bourdillon, Tom (1924-1956):

Tom Bourdillon pioneered the use of the oxygen apparatus used at high altitude by mountaineers. This apparatus was used in the 1953 Everest Expedition when Bourdillon and his partner Charles Evans made an initial but unsuccessful attempt to reach the summit on 26th May 1953. Without this oxygen equipment, it is unlikely that Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay would have managed the climb to the summit three days later.

British India Survey:

The British India Survey was started in 1806 under William Lambton, the Surveyor-General of India. It was an attempt by the British to produce the most accurate map of the Indian subcontinent of the time. The Survey covered the area from Afghanistan in the west to Tibet in the east. The maps produced from it were used by the British to build up knowledge of this area. The British India Survey continued throughout the nineteenth century under the charge of George Everest and later Andrew Waugh. It was finally completed in the early years of the twentieth century.

Caldera:

A volcanic crater greater than 1.5km formed by subsidence below the volcano.

Capital City:

The most important city in a country

Carnivore:

A meat eater.

Climate:

The normal weather conditions in an area.

Climate Change:

Variation in climate over a long period of time.

Colonial:

The term colonial describes a nation that holds colonies

Colonisation:

Colonisation is when one county takes over another country

Colony:

A colony is a country or area controlled by another country. Colony can also describe people who settle far from home but keep links with their homeland.

Commonwealth:

The Commonwealth is a voluntary organization of 54 member countries which were once colonies of Britain. The Commonwealth’s 1.7 billion people make up one quarter of the world’s population.

Constitution:

Group of laws or principles that state how a country is to be organised and governed.

Cornice:

A cornice is a mass of snow that overhangs a mountain slope. Cornices are shaped by the action of wind. Because they often overhang steep slopes cornices are often prone to failure, which can in turn trigger avalanches. This makes cornices extremely dangerous features of high mountainous areas.

Coup:

A sudden action taken to win power.

Crevasse:

A crevasse is a crack in a glacier. They can run deep into a glacier. Crevasses are formed when the slope on which a glacier flows becomes steeper, increasing the speed of parts of the glacier and reducing its thickness. Different parts of the same glacier are then travelling at different speeds over steep and gentle slopes. This places stress on the thin ice, causing cracks or crevasses to appear.

Crop:

The annually or seasonally harvested produce resulting from the cultivation of grain, grass, fruit etc.

Cultivate:

Using land to grow crops

Cultivation:

Using land to grow crops

Cwm:

A cwm or cirque is a hollow that is often armchair-shaped. In the northern hemisphere, they are often on the north side of a mountain because this is the coldest part and in a sheltered location. Once a cwm has formed, snow accumulates in its hollow. This snow eventually compacts to form a cirque glacier. The cwm is then deepened by the rotational movement of this glacier. Eventually, the cirque rotates enough to move over the lip of the cwm. Many old cwms are filled with small lakes, known as tarns in Britain.

Death zone:

The term ‘death zone’ describes the area of Mount Everest above 7,900 metres (26,000 feet). Above this height the shortage of oxygen restricts the normal functions of the human body. Many climbers who stay for extended periods in this area begin to develop serious, if not fatal health problems as a result. In the death zone there is only 33 per cent of the oxygen available in the air at sea level! This shortage of oxygen is the reason why many mountaineers climbing in the death zone use breathing apparatus.

Deforestation:

Clearing away trees from an area

Democracy:

Government of a country by representatives elected by the population.

Diet:

The sort of foods usually eaten by a person or an animal.

Economically active population:

The Economically Active Population is the amount of people in employment in a certain area. Their jobs add wealth to the economy of a country. The economically active population is expressed as a percentage of the total population.

Ecosystem :

All the living (plants, animals, microorganisms) and non living (climate and physical conditions) things in an area functioning together.

Ecotourism:

Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people

Ecotourism:

Tourism planned to respect and safeguard the environment, based on the natural attractions of an area and aware of the concept of sustainable development of fragile ecosystems.

Emancipation:

Emancipation is when people are set free from slavery or social or political restraint. For example, the emancipation of African Slaves between 1833 and 1865. This gave slaves back their freedom and individual rights.

Emigrate:

Leave your own country to go and live in another

Endangered species:

plant and animal species with population numbers so reduced (often by human activities) that their future existence seems uncertain.

Environment:

That which surrounds, the sum total of the conditions of the surroundings in which an organism, or group, or an object, exists (including the natural conditions, the natural as modified by human activity, and the artificial).

Environmental Footprint :

The impact of human resource consumption on the earth's environmental capacity.

Equator:

An imaginary line around the earth which is an equal distance from the North and South Poles

Erosion:

wearing away of the earth's surface by action of water, wind.

Escarpment:

Steep walls on the sides of a valley.

Evans, Sir Charles (1918-1995):

Sir Charles Evans was the deputy leader of the 1953 Everest Expedition. During the Expedition, he made the first attempt on the summit with Tom Bourdillon. However, the pair only reached the South Summit and were forced to retreat by bad weather. Charles Evans is also credited for pioneering new mountaineering routes in the Alps and the Himalaya.

Everest, Sir George (1790-1866):

Sir George Everest was a surveyor. He was in charge of The Great Trigonometrical Survey in 1823. He was later the Surveyor-General of India between 1830 and 1843. Everest was interested in measuring the curvature of the earth. He became famous for measuring the longest ever arc of the meridian. In 1865, a year before he died, ‘Mount Everest’ was officially accepted by The Royal Geographical Society as the name for the highest peak in the world.

Exploration:

European explorers who went to unknown places for different reasons; to find out about the place, to map the land, to spread religion, to look for wealth, to open up trade routes

Explorer:

A person who travels through a country to learn about it.

Export:

Send items abroad to be sold.

Extinct:

Not existing anymore; not active.

Formal economy:

The formal economy is the percentage of the total number of businesses in an area whose activities are registered with the government. Such activities include the number of employees it has and how much revenue it produces.

Formal employment:

Formal employment is the percentage of the working population in an area who are employed within the formal economy. These people often have access to workers rights and are protected by government laws.

Frostbite:

Frostbite is a medical condition where the skin and the bodily tissues beneath it freeze and crystallise. This is caused by exposure to very cold conditions. The extremities of the body (e.g. face, fingers and toes) are most at risk from its effects. Frostbite can cause massive tissue damage that may result in amputation.

Glacier:

A glacier is a flowing mass of ice found in cold environments. They are formed in sheltered hollows where snow is compressed into ice.

Global Warming:

The potential slight rise in the temperature of the earth's atmosphere arising from pollution due to natural causes and human activities (e.g. destruction of vegetation cover, burning fossil fuels) that upset the natural balance of atmospheric gases thus enhancing the greenhouse effect and possibly damaging the ozone layer.

Gondwanaland:

A southern supercontinent which probably formed about 2000 million years ago and began to split some 180 million years ago.

Great theodolite:

The great theodolite was a geometric instrument used in of The Great Trigonometrical Survey of India in the nineteenth century. It was used to measure the angle between a base point and a higher vantage point. Through this measurement, the height of that vantage point could be calculated. The Great Theodolite was used to make the most accurate map of India of its generation. Using the instrument was far from easy because it weighed more than half a ton (508 kg) and needed 12 men to carry it!

Great Trigonometrical Survey:

The Great Trigonometrical Survey was started in 1800 by the surveyor William Lambton. It was an attempt to create the most accurate map possible of the Indian subcontinent by using geometric instruments such as the great theodolite. These measured the angle between an established base line and vantage points on mountain tops. With the help of these measurements, a unique picture of the topography of India was created. For the first time, the heights and positions of 79 peaks in the Himalaya were correctly measured. This Survey was a mammoth project, taking over 70 years and involving 2000 miles (3200 km) of travel. The geometric instruments were not easy to move either - the great theodolite weighed over half a ton (508 kg)! The surveyors also faced huge perils during the process of measurement, risking death on remote mountains and the many dangers of the disease-ridden jungles of India and their tigers. The Great Trigonometrical Survey was so successful that it was endorsed by the Indian government in 1818. Yet Lambton failed to see the completion of his great plan. After his death, George Everest became Surveyor-General of India and head of the mapping project. However, it was Sir Andrew Waugh who finally finished The Great Trigonometrical Survey.

Greenhouse effect:

The phenomenon in which the atmosphere near the earth's surface holds heat. Like the glass of a greenhouse, restrains the rising heat.

Greenhouse gas:

Excsessive amounts of carbon dioxide in the armosphere that enhance the greenhouse effect.

Habitat:

A place or a kind of place that provides a particular set of environmental conditions for the organism or organisms inhabiting it.

HACE (high altitude cerebral edema):

HACE is a form of altitude sickness resulting from the swelling of brain tissue. Its symptoms often become clear after about a week at altitude. These symptoms also include loss of co-ordination and memory, paralysis and distortion of vision. This illness can quickly result in death if an immediate descent is not made.

HAPE (high altitude pulmonary edema):

This is a form of altitude sickness which results from a fluid build up within the lungs. This fluid prevents effective oxygen exchange and results in a shortness of breath and extreme tiredness even at rest. Many also suffer from a persistent cough which brings up a white frothy fluid. It is imperative for those who suffer from this to descend to lower altitudes as quickly as possible.

Herbivore:

A plant eater

Hillary, Sir Edmund (1953- ):

Sir Edmund Hillary is a famous explorer from New Zealand. He was a member of the 1953 expedition to Mount Everest. Hillary and Tenzing Norgay became the first people to climb Mount Everest when they reached the summit on 29th May 1953. Hillary has since completed an expedition to the South Pole and has set up a charity to help the Sherpa people. The charity has funded the construction of schools and hospitals in the Khumbu region.

Himal:

Himal is a Nepalese word for ‘snow covered mountain’.

Himalaya:

The Himalaya is the highest mountain range in the world. It stretches from Kashmir in eastern Asia to Bhutan in western Asia. Eight of its mountains rise to over 8,000 metres (26,250 feet). This includes Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world at 8,848 metres (29,035 feet). The Himalaya were formed when two plates of the earth’s crust, the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates, collided. This forced the earth’s crust to be pushed up into mountains. The Himalaya are currently estimated to be rising in height at a rate of around 4mm (over 0.1 inches) a year.

Honey Pot:

A honey pot is a location that attracts an unusually high number of visitors, for example a tourist attraction.

Horticulture:

The growing of flowers and other plants for gardens.

Hotspots:

A hotspot is a popular tourist region. There are a variety of reasons why they develop, for example, an attractive climate and scenery or a collection of popular tourist attractions.

Hunt, Colonel John (1910-1998):

Colonel John Hunt was an experienced mountaineer in the Himalaya. He was selected to lead the 1953 Everest Expedition in which Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay became the first people ever to successfully climb to the summit of Mount Everest.

Hypothermia:

Hypothermia is a medical condition triggered when the core body temperature (that of the internal organs) passes below a certain threshold. The function of the patient’s muscles and the brain are then affected. Hypothermia can be triggered by dehydration, exhaustion, wetness, cold temperatures and inadequate clothing. There are several stages in the deterioration of the body into a hypothermic state. Symptoms of the condition can include a loss of coordination, violent shaking, irrationality and a loss of balance. If untreated, hypothermia can result in death. However, it can be treated quickly by ensuring the patient is warm, dry, fed and hydrated.

Ice core:

A circular section taken from within the ice sheet in the same way you would core an apple.

Ice field:

An ice field is specifically a large continuous area of pack ice or sea ice, more than 8km across.

Ice sheet:

An ice sheet is a continuous mass of ice and snow of considerable thickness and covering a large area of rock or water. The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth.

Ice shelf:

Ice shelf refers to a thick ice sheet of great extent and with a level or undulating surface, fed by snow and sometimes by glaciers, which has reached the sea and is floating, although parts may be aground.

Ice streams:

Ice streams are fast-flowing channels in the ice sheet. Although they account for only 10% of the volume of the ice sheet, ice streams are sizeable features, up to 50km wide, 2000m thick and hundreds of km long. Ice streams can flow at speeds of over 1000 m per year and most of the ice leaving the ice sheet passes through them.

Ice-floe:

any separate piece of floating sea ice. They are formed by the cracking and breaking of a solid ice sheet.

Iceberg:

large mass of land ice, broken off from a glacier or from an ice shelf and floating in the sea

Immigrate:

come into a country to live there

Import:

To bring in goods from another country

Indentured labour:

A system of contract labour, developed to attract workers to the British colonies

Independence:

A country ruling itself.

Informal economy:

Informal economy is a collection of businesses whose activities are not recorded by a country’s government. This means that the revenue they add to a country’s economy is unrecorded and cannot be taxed. Businesses in the informal economy often operate illegally and break laws intended to protect employees.

Informal employment:

Informal employment is the percentage of the working population in a geographical area who work for an unregistered business. Those who work in informal employment are often self-employed. There is a high percentage of informal employment in many third world countries.

Irrigation:

The action of artificially supplying land with water to help the growth and productivity of plants.

Jihad:

Holy war

John Crow:

Joncrow is the name given to a bird found in Jamaica. Similar to a raven or magpie, blackbird or crow. In Jamaica, there used to be a reverend whose name was John Crow. According to some, he would wear long black robes and preach, perched on the pulpit, bent over like a vulture at a carrion feast. Whenever Jamaicans used to see a raven or blackbird in a similar stance hunched over an ill begotten meal, they would exclaim in their Patois tongue "Wat a way dat bird dere fava Joncrow Suh" which basically translates to "Doesn't that bird over there sure look like Reverend John Crow?"

Katabatic winds:

These are the result of descending cold dry air moving out drawn by warmer conditions.

Kathmandu:

Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal. It sits at an altitude of 1,400 metres (4500 feet) and is to the south of the Himalaya mountain range. It is the largest city in Nepal, with a population of over 500,000 people. Kathmandu is an essential source of supplies for mountaineering expeditions in the Himalaya.

Khumbu cough:

The Khumbu cough is an illness associated with high altitude. Its main symptom is a persistent dry cough which can restrict breathing and quickly lead to exhaustion. It is caused by over exertion, such as intense physical activity, which leads to an increased breathing rate, combined with the cold air of high altitude that dries out the membranes in the patient’s lungs.

Khumbu Icefall:

The Khumbu Icefall is found at 5,486 metres (18,000 feet) on the Nepali slopes of Mount Everest, south-west of the summit. The Icefall is regarded as one of the most dangerous stages of the climb to Everest’s summit. The Khumbu glacier that forms the Icefall moves at such speed that huge crevasses open without much warning. The large towers of ice or seracs found at the Icefall have been known suddenly to collapse. It is estimated that the glacier advances three to four feet down the mountain every day! As the ice structures are continually changing, crossing the Khumbu Icefall is extremely dangerous. Even extensive rope and ladder crossings cannot prevent loss of life. More people have died crossing the Khumbu Icefall than on any other part of Mount Everest.

Lambton, William (1753-1823):

William Lambton was a famous surveyor who helped to map the Indian subcontinent. He started The Great Trigonometrical Survey in 1800 and later became Surveyor-General of the British India Survey in 1808. However, Lambton never saw the completion of his project, dying in 1823.

Latitude:

Imaginary lines that go around the earth from east to west and tell you how far north or south of the equator a place is.

Life Expectancy:

The average number of years a person can expect to live.

Literacy Rate:

The number of people who can read and write.

Livingstone, David (1813-1873):

David Livingstone was a Scottish missionary and traveller. He worked for several years in Botswana, then travelled north (1852-6) and discovered Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls. He led an expedition to the Zambezi (1858-63) and discovered Lake Shirwa and Lake Nyasa. In 1866 he returned to Africa to establish the sources of the Nile, but the river he encountered proved to be the Congo. After returning to Ujiji because of illness he set out to find the sources of the Nile, but died in Old Chitambo.

Longitude:

Imaginary lines that go around the earth from north to south and tells you how far east or west a place is

Maasai:

A group of African people who live in Kenya and Tanzania.

Madrasas:

Religious schools

Mallory, George (1886-1924):

Mallory is famous for saying that he wanted to climb Mount Everest simply ‘because it is there’. George Mallory was the first to attempt to climb Mount Everest in 1921. He later disappeared on another attempt, in June 1924. Mallory’s frozen body was discovered in 1999 at 8,170 metres (26,800 feet), under 700 metres below the summit.

Migration :

The movement of people from one place to another to live or to work.

Minerals:

Made naturally in the earth and taken out by mining, for example, gold, diamonds, coal

Missionary:

A person who travels to another country to spread a religious faith.

Molten:

Melted

Monsoon:

This term is used to describe the seasonal reversal in pressure that leads to a change in the wind direction. It is usually associated with the wet season brought by moist monsoon winds to sub-tropical regions such as India. Monsoon winds can also bring long periods of dry weather.

Mount Everest:

With its summit standing at 8,848 metres (29,035 feet), Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world and the pinnacle of mountaineering. The mountain was named after the famous Surveyor-General of India, Sir George Everest in the nineteenth century. It sits in the famous Asian mountain range of the Himalaya. Mount Everest is an example of a mountain altered by the process of glaciation. It’s summit is a typical pyramidal peak which is surrounded by glaciers on all sides. The most well known of these is the Khumbu glacier which has helped create the Western Cwm and Khumbu Icefall The first expedition to climb Mount Everest was led by George Mallory in 1921. He was later to disappear on the mountain, along with Andrew Irvine, in 1924. Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay were the first explorers to complete a successful climb of Everest, in May 1953. They took the legendary Southern Col route. Between 1953 and 1992 over 485 ascents were made on Everest with the total loss of over 115 lives.

Mujahadin:

Fighters in a holy war

Nomad:

A person who adopts a lifestyle based essentially on constant movement in search of sustenance, especially for grazing animals. Most nomads wander within defined areas, often using regular routes.

Non-renewable resources:

Non-renewable resources are those that are limited in supply and take hundreds or thousands of years to re-form. Therefore, the supply of these goods will run out before these materials re-form. Examples of non-renewable resources are oil and coal.

Norgay, Tenzing (1914 -1986):

Tenzing Norgay was a Nepalese Sherpa. Tenzing and Edmund Hillary became the first people to climb Mount Everest when they reached the summit on 29th May 1953. He was selected for this expedition because he had been a valued member of previous attempts on Everest. Tenzing Norgay became famous after conquering Everest and was an ambassador of the Nepalese and Sherpa peoples.

Nunatak:

A mountain peak that protrudes above an ice sheet.

Ozone:

A gas which forms a layer 15-50km above the earth’s surface. It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

Poach:

To steal game or fish from someone else's land or water.

Polar regions:

Those areas of the earth which lie close to the North or South Poles.

Pole:

The term pole refers to either end of the axis of rotation of the earth, that is the North Pole and the South Pole.

Population:

The total number of people who live in an area or country

Precipitation:

Precipitation means all forms of water, which fall to the ground. It can take many forms, for example, rain, dew, hail and snow.

Primary employment:

Primary employment is the percentage of working population in an area who are employed in the extraction or collection of raw materials e.g. farming and mining.

Pundits:

Pundit is derived from a Hindi word for a ‘man of learning’. It was used as a term for Indians who secretly explored and surveyed Tibet in the nineteenth century. They were used because the British were not allowed into Tibet themselves. The British were anxious to map Tibet as they feared a Russian attack on Nepal or India from the north.

Pyramidal peak:

A pyramidal peak is a horn-shaped mountain summit. This horn is created by the deepening and expansive erosion of corries on three sides of the peak. Frost shattering creates a pyramidal peak’s jagged summit.

Quality of life:

Quality of life is a measurement of an individual’s well-being. It is usually used as a comparison to the rest of society.

raw material:

natural substances used in industry

Recycle:

To collect and purify waste materials and converting them to new and useful products.

Relative humidity:

Relative humidity is a measure of how moist the air is at a certain temperature. It is the ratio between the actual amount of moisture in the air and the maximum potential amount of moisture that the air could hold at the same temperature. It is expressed as a percentage.

Republic:

A country that has a president

Resistance:

Oppose/fight or act against something.

Safari :

An expedition to see or hunt wild animals.

Sanitation:

The system that disposes of sewage from toilets.

Secondary employment:

Secondary employment is the percentage of the population in an area employed in jobs that manufacture raw materials into new products. An example of secondary employment is the car industry because it uses raw materials such as steel and rubber to assemble cars.

Serac:

A serac is an isolated block of ice that occurs on steep mountainous slopes. Seracs form when the glaciers that flow along these slopes break up rather than melt, creating huge surface fractures in the ice. Seracs are extremely dangerous, especially in summer when melt water from the glacier provides a lubricating layer between the ice and rock beneath leading to the threat of ice avalanches.

Sherpa:

Sherpa literally means ‘people from the East’. The Sherpa people originated in eastern Tibet. Today, they are largely based in the Khumbu region of Nepal, to the south of Mount Everest. Sherpas have an outstanding worldwide reputation as mountain guides and porters. Their local knowledge of the Himalaya has been essential to the success of many international ascents of Everest. The first Sherpa to reach the summit of Everest was Tenzing Norgay in 1953.

Sherpani:

Sherpani is a word used to describe a female Sherpa. The first female Sherpa to climb Mount Everest was Pasang Lhamu Sherpa in 1993.

Sirdar:

A Nepalese word for the head Sherpa of an expedition party.

Slave:

A slave is an individual who is “owned” by a master. Slaves have no individual rights or freedoms and have to carry out the demands of their owner.

Slave:

A person who is owned by another person and has to work for them without being paid.

Slave Trade:

The trade in African slaves began in ancient times. The trade reached its peak in the second half of the 18th century. A typical voyage for a British ship would involve a triangular course; south to the slave coast of West Africa to pick up cargo slaves who were transported across the Atlantic in terrible conditions to the West Indies or the North American colonies, from where sugar, cotton, tobacco would be shipped home.

Slavery:

Slavery describes the practice of capturing, selling and owning slaves. The trade existed between the 16th and 19th centuries. In the past slavery has been linked with the growth of empires.

Snow blindness:

Snow blindness is a painful condition caused by the over exposure of unprotected eyes to bright sunlight. Snow and ice have a high albedo, reflecting a very high percentage of sunlight. This glare causes much damage to the eyes. Those with snow blindness suffer initial pain when the eyes are exposed to bright light, followed by a temporary loss of vision. The condition disappears after a period of rest indoors. However, repeated high glare exposure can lead to permanent sight damage. It is often associated with mountaineering, especially in times before the creation of special snow goggles or dark glacier sunglasses. This is because mountaineers are often in environments with large amounts of snow and ice.

South Summit:

The South Summit of Mount Everest sits at 8,595 metres (28,200 feet). It looks similar to the horn-shaped summit but is much smaller in size. The South Summit and actual summit of Everest are linked by the South Ridge.

Standard of living:

This is a measure of an individual’s prosperity in relation to the rest of society. Standard of living is often measured by indicators such as health and wealth.

Subsistence farming:

Farming in which the products are grown mainly for the farmer and family

Summit:

The Summit is the highest point of a mountain. The highest summit in the world is that of Mount Everest at 29,028 feet.

Sustainable:

A use of resources to ensure that there is sufficient supply to be used in the future.

Sustainable:

Something that will keep on going.

Sustainable development:

Developments of the present that do not reduce the opportunities of future generations. This term is most often applied to the management of resources and the environment.

Taliban:

Religious students

Tertiary employment:

Tertiary employment is the percentage of the working population in an area that is employed in industry which provides services, for example teaching or banking.

Thyangboche Monastery :

At 3,928 metres (12,887 feet) above sea level and to the south of Everest, Thyangboche Monastery is a famous centre of Buddhism. It was the first stop of Hillary’s attempt on Mount Everest. It took him 16 days, along with 13 other climbers and 350 porters to reach this point, 170 miles (274 km) up the Kathmandu valley.

Tourism:

An industry catering for the needs of those who want to travel outside the area in which they live. This term can apply to those who travel either inside or outside the country in which they live.

Trade:

Exchange of goods or services for money

Trade routes:

The way by land or sea where goods where transported from one place to another

Trader:

A person who buys or sells things

Triangulation:

A baseline between two points, usually about 7 miles apart, was carefully measured. Then from each of the same two points, the angle between this baseline and the sight line to a third point was measured using a theodolite. A triangle was thus formed and if the length of one of its sides (the baseline) plus two of its angles was known, the lengths of its other sides could be calcualated. One of these sides could then be used as the baseline for another triangle without the need for ground measurement.

Tribe:

A set of people; a group of families living in one area as a community, ruled by a chief.

Tributary:

A stream or river flowing into a larger one.

Troposphere:

The troposphere is the layer of atmosphere next to the earth’s surface. It is about 7-8 km thick and is where most of the weather activity affecting human life takes place. In this layer, the temperature falls with increased height.

Unsaturated atmosphere:

The atmosphere is unsaturated when it is able to hold more water vapour.

Unsustainable:

A practice that will not be able to continue in the future.

Valley:

A long and low area between hills.

Victorian Era:

The Victorian era is when Britain was ruled by Queen Victoria from 1837 to 1901

Volcano :

A rift or vent in the earth's crust through which molten material erupts and soldifies on the surface as lava or through which the molten rocks, charged with gases and vapours,are ejected with explosive forceand fall back as volcanic ash or dust.

Waugh, Andrew (1810-1878):

Andrew Waugh was a surveyor who helped map India and large areas of central Asia. He became the Surveyor-General of the British India Survey in 1843 after George Everest retired. Waugh and his team measured Peak XV now known as Mount Everest, recording a height of 8,840 metres (29,002 feet). Waugh later suggested that Peak XV be named after Sir George Everest.

Weather :

The rain, snow, wind, sunshine etc at a particular time and place.

Weathering:

The breakdown but not the removal of rocks. Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rocks by disintegration without chemical change.

Western Cwm:

The Western Cwm lies to the west of Mount Everest linking the Khumbu Icefall with the southern base of the summit. It rises from 5,791 metres (19,000 feet) to 6,706 metres (22,000 feet). This is one of the most popular routes used by climbers to reach the summit. This method was chosen by the 1953 Everest Expedition. The Western Cwm takes the form of a large bowl, enclosed by the peaks of Lhotse and Nuptse to the south and the Western Ridge to the north.

Western Ridge:

The Western Ridge is a sharp knife-edged arête. It descends to the west of Mount Everest’s summit at 8,839 metres (29,000 feet) to around 6,096 metres (20,000 feet). It forms the north wall of the Western Cwm.

Yak:

A yak is an animal that is native to the Himalaya. Yaks live at between 3,048 and 6,096 metres (10,000-20,000 feet). They are well adapted to their environment and have large lungs to allow maximum absorption of oxygen at high altitudes. Yaks are often used by Sherpas to carry loads because they cross mountainous terrains well and can carry up to 100kg (220 lb) of packs.

Yeti:

According to Nepalese legend, the yeti is a beast that inhabits the mountains of the Himalaya. Yetis are believed to be around 2.7 metres (9 feet) tall and have the appearance of a gorilla but with some human features. There have been many suspected sightings of the beast, also known as The Abominable Snowman, on numerous Everest expeditions. Such examples are the photos of Eric Shipton of supposed yeti footprints from the 1951 Everest Reconnaissance Expedition (a preparation for the 1953 Everest Expedition). The authenticity of such evidence has been disputed by several experts who believed Shipton had faked the footprints.