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Glossary

By entering a keyword, all words will appear which have the keyword in its description.

To find the meaning of a particular word, click on the first letter of the word in the A-Z list below. By clicking on a particular word, all areas of the site which have this word are displayed.

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Safari :

An expedition to see or hunt wild animals.

Sanitation:

The system that disposes of sewage from toilets.

Secondary employment:

Secondary employment is the percentage of the population in an area employed in jobs that manufacture raw materials into new products. An example of secondary employment is the car industry because it uses raw materials such as steel and rubber to assemble cars.

Serac:

A serac is an isolated block of ice that occurs on steep mountainous slopes. Seracs form when the glaciers that flow along these slopes break up rather than melt, creating huge surface fractures in the ice. Seracs are extremely dangerous, especially in summer when melt water from the glacier provides a lubricating layer between the ice and rock beneath leading to the threat of ice avalanches.

Sherpa:

Sherpa literally means ‘people from the East’. The Sherpa people originated in eastern Tibet. Today, they are largely based in the Khumbu region of Nepal, to the south of Mount Everest. Sherpas have an outstanding worldwide reputation as mountain guides and porters. Their local knowledge of the Himalaya has been essential to the success of many international ascents of Everest. The first Sherpa to reach the summit of Everest was Tenzing Norgay in 1953.

Sherpani:

Sherpani is a word used to describe a female Sherpa. The first female Sherpa to climb Mount Everest was Pasang Lhamu Sherpa in 1993.

Sirdar:

A Nepalese word for the head Sherpa of an expedition party.

Slave:

A person who is owned by another person and has to work for them without being paid.

Slave:

A slave is an individual who is “owned” by a master. Slaves have no individual rights or freedoms and have to carry out the demands of their owner.

Slave Trade:

The trade in African slaves began in ancient times. The trade reached its peak in the second half of the 18th century. A typical voyage for a British ship would involve a triangular course; south to the slave coast of West Africa to pick up cargo slaves who were transported across the Atlantic in terrible conditions to the West Indies or the North American colonies, from where sugar, cotton, tobacco would be shipped home.

Slavery:

Slavery describes the practice of capturing, selling and owning slaves. The trade existed between the 16th and 19th centuries. In the past slavery has been linked with the growth of empires.

Snow blindness:

Snow blindness is a painful condition caused by the over exposure of unprotected eyes to bright sunlight. Snow and ice have a high albedo, reflecting a very high percentage of sunlight. This glare causes much damage to the eyes. Those with snow blindness suffer initial pain when the eyes are exposed to bright light, followed by a temporary loss of vision. The condition disappears after a period of rest indoors. However, repeated high glare exposure can lead to permanent sight damage. It is often associated with mountaineering, especially in times before the creation of special snow goggles or dark glacier sunglasses. This is because mountaineers are often in environments with large amounts of snow and ice.

South Summit:

The South Summit of Mount Everest sits at 8,595 metres (28,200 feet). It looks similar to the horn-shaped summit but is much smaller in size. The South Summit and actual summit of Everest are linked by the South Ridge.

Standard of living:

This is a measure of an individual’s prosperity in relation to the rest of society. Standard of living is often measured by indicators such as health and wealth.

Subsistence farming:

Farming in which the products are grown mainly for the farmer and family

Summit:

The Summit is the highest point of a mountain. The highest summit in the world is that of Mount Everest at 29,028 feet.

Sustainable:

A use of resources to ensure that there is sufficient supply to be used in the future.

Sustainable:

Something that will keep on going.

Sustainable development:

Developments of the present that do not reduce the opportunities of future generations. This term is most often applied to the management of resources and the environment.