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Glossary

By entering a keyword, all words will appear which have the keyword in its description.

To find the meaning of a particular word, click on the first letter of the word in the A-Z list below. By clicking on a particular word, all areas of the site which have this word are displayed.

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Caldera:

A volcanic crater greater than 1.5km formed by subsidence below the volcano.

Capital City:

The most important city in a country

Carnivore:

A meat eater.

Climate:

The normal weather conditions in an area.

Climate Change:

Variation in climate over a long period of time.

Colonial:

The term colonial describes a nation that holds colonies

Colonisation:

Colonisation is when one county takes over another country

Colony:

A colony is a country or area controlled by another country. Colony can also describe people who settle far from home but keep links with their homeland.

Commonwealth:

The Commonwealth is a voluntary organization of 54 member countries which were once colonies of Britain. The Commonwealth’s 1.7 billion people make up one quarter of the world’s population.

Constitution:

Group of laws or principles that state how a country is to be organised and governed.

Cornice:

A cornice is a mass of snow that overhangs a mountain slope. Cornices are shaped by the action of wind. Because they often overhang steep slopes cornices are often prone to failure, which can in turn trigger avalanches. This makes cornices extremely dangerous features of high mountainous areas.

Coup:

A sudden action taken to win power.

Crevasse:

A crevasse is a crack in a glacier. They can run deep into a glacier. Crevasses are formed when the slope on which a glacier flows becomes steeper, increasing the speed of parts of the glacier and reducing its thickness. Different parts of the same glacier are then travelling at different speeds over steep and gentle slopes. This places stress on the thin ice, causing cracks or crevasses to appear.

Crop:

The annually or seasonally harvested produce resulting from the cultivation of grain, grass, fruit etc.

Cultivate:

Using land to grow crops

Cultivation:

Using land to grow crops

Cwm:

A cwm or cirque is a hollow that is often armchair-shaped. In the northern hemisphere, they are often on the north side of a mountain because this is the coldest part and in a sheltered location. Once a cwm has formed, snow accumulates in its hollow. This snow eventually compacts to form a cirque glacier. The cwm is then deepened by the rotational movement of this glacier. Eventually, the cirque rotates enough to move over the lip of the cwm. Many old cwms are filled with small lakes, known as tarns in Britain.