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Glossary

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Base camp:

A base camp is normally the most permanent camp of a mountain expedition party. It is usually the lowest and most sheltered of the camps on a mountain.

Bergschrund:

A bergschrund is a special type of crevasse. They are found in cwms where a glacier moves away from the back wall of its cwm or hollow. The tension this causes forms great splits in the ice. Bergschrunds often open in summer and close in winter.

Bourdillon, Tom (1924-1956):

Tom Bourdillon pioneered the use of the oxygen apparatus used at high altitude by mountaineers. This apparatus was used in the 1953 Everest Expedition when Bourdillon and his partner Charles Evans made an initial but unsuccessful attempt to reach the summit on 26th May 1953. Without this oxygen equipment, it is unlikely that Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay would have managed the climb to the summit three days later.

British India Survey:

The British India Survey was started in 1806 under William Lambton, the Surveyor-General of India. It was an attempt by the British to produce the most accurate map of the Indian subcontinent of the time. The Survey covered the area from Afghanistan in the west to Tibet in the east. The maps produced from it were used by the British to build up knowledge of this area. The British India Survey continued throughout the nineteenth century under the charge of George Everest and later Andrew Waugh. It was finally completed in the early years of the twentieth century.